A painter hangs his or her finished pictures on a wall, and everyone can see it. A composer writes a work, but no one can hear it until it is performed. Professional singers and players have great responsibilities, for the composer is [utterly](完全的) dependent on them. A student of music needs as long and as [arduous](艰巨的) a training to become a perfomer as a medical student needs to become a doctor. Most training is concerned with technique, for musicians have to have the [muscular] (强壮的) [proficiency](熟练) of an athlete or a ballet dancer. Singers practice breathing every day, as their [vocal](有声音的) [chords](弦) would be inadequate without controlled [muscular])(强壮的) support. String players practice moving the fingers of the left hand up and down, while drawing the bow to and [fro](向后) with the right arm-two entirely different movements.
Singers and instuments have to be able to get every note perfectly in [tune](曲调). Piantists are spared this particular anxiety, for the notes are already there, waiting for them, and it is the piano tuner’s responsibility to [tune](曲调) the instrument for them. But they have their own difficulties; the hammers that hit the string have to be [coaxed](哄) not to sound like [percussion](敲打), and each [overlapping](重叠) [tone](声调，语调) has to sound clear.
This problem of getting clear [texture](质地，结构) is one that confronts(面对) student [conductors](指挥) : they have to learn to know every note of the music and how it should sound, and they have to aim at controlling these sound with [fanatical](狂热的) but [selfless authority](客观权威). Technique is of no use unless it is combined with musical knowledge and understanding. Great artists are those who are so [thoroughly](彻底的) at home in the language of music that they can enjoy performing works written in any century.
selfless authority: 客观权威
be concerned with: 参与，干预，而不是挂念
- This problem of getting clear texture is one that confronts student conductors…